Sacroiliac joint (SI Joint) dysfunction or sacroiliac syndrome as it is sometimes referred to as, can be a potential cause of low back pain. It is a condition that is not well understood as there is no gold standard for diagnosing and treating this problem. The SI Joint is considered a diarthrodial joint and connects the sacrum to the pelvis. Limited motion does occur and the SI joints are supported by surrounding muscles and strong ligaments. While not completely clear, it is believed that SI joint pain can be caused by either too much joint movement or too little movement. Pain can also come from surrounding structures including the discs and facet joints.
Diagnosis of SI joint dysfunction is often made based on tests conducted during a physical examination. Many practitioners also utilize a SI joint injection under fluoroscopic guidance (“live x-ray”) or CT guidance to confirm the diagnosis. If the patient receives relief of pain, even if temporary, then treatment can be focused on the SI joint. Non-surgical treatment options often include corticosteroid injections, manipulative physical therapy, and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. More advanced options include radiofrequency neurotomy and SI joint fusion. Results of a systematic review of the literature (Rupert el al 2009) found evidence for radiofrequency neurotomy use is very limited based on only a few quality studies. The number of SI joint fusions has increased significantly in the last few years including the use of minimally invasive approaches. The indications for a fusion is limited and there are concerns that by removing motion within the joint, more forces will be transmitted across the hips and lower spine leading to further problems.
So what other options exist for those who suffer from pain emanating from the SI joints? Prolotherapy has been suggested and has been used successfully in a number of documented cases. The medical literature is very limited in regards to using prolotherapy for this condition, but the results of some smaller studies have shown that Prolotherapy may be an option to consider. Cusi et al (2010) followed 25 patients with SI joint dysfunction following a hypertonic dextrose solution injection under CT guidance. A positive clinical result was present for 76% at 12 months after injection and 32% at 24 months. In a randomized controlled study, Kim et al (2010) compared Prolotherapy injections to corticosteroid injections. At 15 months post-injection 58.7% of those treated with a Prolotherapy injection had pain relief equal to or greater than 50% versus 10.2% for the corticosteroid group.
Going back to the underlying reason for SI joint pain, the common thinking is pain and dysfunction result from changes in ligamentous laxity. Prolotherapy is aimed at injecting an irritant into the joint and/or weakened ligamentous structures to promote a response by the body to heal the affected area. While limited data to support Prolotherapy for SI joint dysfunction exists, no significant adverse events have been reported in the literature and mostly observational studies have shown the treatment to be effective at alleviating pain for the subset of patients treated.